53. Is Hell a place of eternal torment?

The Hebrew word 'sheol' which was originally translated as 'hell' in the KJV simply means the grave... the place for the dead where they waited for judgment. This word in Greek is 'hades' which also has the same meaning... but has added connotations of being a place of evil that the scriptures do not support.

The key is that the Hebrew Tanach has about 70 references to the fate of the wicked...and the picture is conclusive that they PERISH. 

Job 4:8-9
8 Even as I have seen,
Those who plow iniquity 
And sow trouble reap the same. 
9 By the blast of God they perish,
And by the breath of His anger they are consumed.  NKJV
Perish means that the CEASE TO EXIST...and there is no indication that the fate of the wicked was eternal torment

In many places the word 'sheol' or 'hades' were previously translated as 'hell' in older versions of the KJV bible but this is no longer so in most recent translations.

The remaining main word now most frequently translated as 'hell' is the Hebrew word Gehenna...which was the name of the place.... 'the valley of Hinnom' near the city of Jerusalem where the city tip was located. This was the place where the waste of the city was burned including the remains of sacrifices and animals who perished and the fire burned continually to get rid of the refuse. But after Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed in AD 70 the fire stopped burning there as soon as all that perished was consumed and today we can see go and see that it is not burning anymore. Brethren, factually there is NO FIRE BURNING IN GEHENNA today.The fiery destruction of Jerusalem and the temple which occurred in AD70 was promised in many places in the scriptures from Deuteronomy to Malachi. To translate the name of a PLACE as 'hell' has done a huge disservice to truth. 

The phrase referring to 'the vengeance of eternal fire' used of the case of Sodom and Gomorrah (Jude 7) is described in Luke 17:29 as 'fire from heaven that destroyed them all'. We all know that Sodom and Gomorrah are not still burning today...but that the fire there certainly came from HEAVEN and burned until its purpose was achieved i.e. all the waste was consumed. Genesis 17:24 describes it as 'fire from the LORD out of heaven'. God's judgment was being demonstrated...rather than it being just a tragic natural event! The other references to 'eternal or everlasting fire' should also be viewed in the same way. Israel in AD 70 knew that GOD was using the Roman army to mete out HIS JUDGMENT. For those who disagree please take a trip to the Gehenna yourself...you can see this that the fire is also no longer burning.

Please note that ALL the scriptures speaking of Gehenna are addressed to the JEWS who were the ones who would reject Jesus. These people knew the purpose of the Gehenna as the place where rubbish was disposed. They did not view it as a place of eternal torment for human beings.  The scriptures referring to Gehenna are in the main figurative (i.e. Jews almost always spoke in figurative language when referring to future apocalyptic matters) and ALL of them refer to the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple by fire and the judgment of the Jews who rejected and killed their Messiah....as actually happened in AD70....with God ordained FIRE.


Matt 10: 28 And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. But rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hellNKJV

The Jews knew a resurrection and judgment would follow at the end of their Age. They had a covenant with God and were expecting to be rewarded with eternal life...in the time known as 'the resurrection'.
The context of this verse is that the gospel would cause division amongst the Jews  ... even to the extent that unbelieving Jews would persecute believers who followed Jesus and kill them as is demonstrated thoughout the book of Acts. 
The worst that could be done to believers was that their bodies could be destroyed... their souls were now UNITED with Christ's spirit and therefore HAD eternal life. Those who did not believe would (soon) be destroyed ... body and soul because they were not united with Christ.
Those who had rejected Jesus and said 'his blood be on us and our children' WERE disposed of (body and soul) in the fiery tip of 'Gehenna'. This was fulfilled during the fires which destroyed Jerusalem in AD70. (1,1 million Jews were killed by the Romans at that time)
Many look at Matthew chapter 25 in isolation and assume it applies to the church in the New Covenant. These parables from Jesus however are part of a topic Jesus starts in Mat 23:1 where he pronounces judgment of the godless religious institutions of HIS day and their leaders who not only throughout history killed the prophets but who would also shortly reject and kill their Messiah. The judgement of hell fire was specifically to come upon THIS generation (the AD 33 generation Mat 23:36) ...the same ones who said 'his blood be on US and our children'. Jesus then links this judgment with the timing of the destruction of the temple (Mat 24:2).... the tribulation of Daniel 12:1 (Mat 24:29) ... the coming of Jesus on clouds at the same time as prophecied  in Daniel 7:13 (Mat 24:30)... and then emphatically repeats that the judgment and associated events would take place in the AD 33 generation (Mat 24:34). He then warns those who were 'evil servants of the house'... i.e. the leadership of the Jews ...in a series of parables from Mat 24:43 about the judgments they as 'unprofitable servants' would shortly face on HIS return (Mat 25:1 to Mat 25:14 and Mat 25:31). The clincher is that  in Matthew 26 it opens with these same Jews plotting to kill Jesus exactly as He had said would happen.
These judgments are NOT on the church ...or even unbelieving Gentiles...but on apostate ISRAEL.  Brethren the King (26:34) was Jesus who came to the Jews in AD 70 and was in the main rejected by them. They then persecuted the apostles ...'these my brethren' (26:45). The way Israel rejected Jesus was by rejecting the gospel when it was preached in all the world ('to the Jew first')...and then by persecuting the apostles. This is the same judgment and separation of the wheat and the tares that Jesus warned of in Mat 13:24-30 and 36-51. The 'sons of the wicked one' amongst the Jews were the ones sent to 'the everlasting fire prepared for the Devil and his angels' in Mat 26:41.
Matt 25:31 "When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory32 All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate them one from another, as a shepherd divides his sheep from the goats.  33 And He will set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left.  34 Then the King will say to those on His right hand, 'Come, you blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:  35 for I was hungry and you gave Me food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and you took Me in;  36 I was naked and you clothed Me; I was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.'  
37 "Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink?  38 When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You?  39 Or when did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?'  40 And the King will answer and say to them, 'Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren, you did it to Me.'  
41 "Then He will also say to those on the left hand,'Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels:  42 for I was hungry and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink;  43 I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me.'  
44 "Then they also will answer Him, saying, 'Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison, and did not minister to You?'  45 Then He will answer them, saying, 'Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to Me.'  46 And these will go away into everlasting punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."  NKJV
The Son of Man coming in His glory... this refers to Daniel's prophecy Chapter 7:13-14.... and the judgement of 7:9-10. ALL aspects of this event were prophecied to be FULFILLED before AD 70 (Dan 12:7) ...and all within the life of the same generation of those who heard and rejected Jesus. Jesus refers to this same coming in Mat 24:30-31, 37, 39, 42, 44, 46, 50, and Mat 25:6, 13, 19 ...and strongly assures us in Mat 24:34 that His coming would take place BEFORE that very generation passed away (ie AD73 at the latest). There is no indication in the text that these scriptures refer to one 'coming' which is in judgment of Israel in AD 70....and then another one for an unspecified reason being a final 'coming' at  the end of the world for judgment of the Gentiles some 2000 years later.

This whole passage is ONLY addressed to the Jews who refused to acknowledge Jesus and the miracles performed before their eyes when He came as their Messiah. They also rejected and killed Him and all the prophets before Him.... and then killed His disciples and the apostles just as Jesus said they would (Luke 11:49). These are the ones who on the Day of the Lord were judged and burned. This happened in AD 70 when Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed ... thus bringing the Old Covenant to an end ... and all Judaism's religious works were burned up (as wood hay and stubble). 

The eternal / everlasting punishment speaks of the fact that it is both FROM GOD in HEAVEN and NON-REVERSIBLE. By rejecting God and His way of salvation (i.e. by receiving Jesus ... John 1:11-13) the Jews aligned themselves with SATAN and his plan to destroy the Messiah ... and left themselves no option other than to be destroyed on judgment day at the end of their age.  


When Gehenna is contrasted against the Hebrew word SHEOL which was also often translated as 'hell' (i.e. in the older versions of the KJV) we can see that these address two clearly different locations. In most scriptures this word and its Greek alternative 'HADES simply refers to the GRAVE... the place where the Israelites who were under the Law, waited for their redemption by Messiah. This is what is alluded to in 1 Peter 3:19-20, 1 Pet 4:5-6 and Eph 4:9. Both good and bad were waiting for judgment under the Law and the good were to be rewarded with eternal life and the bad were to be destroyed. (Dan 12:1-3, Mat 13:39-43 and Mat 24:30-31) 


Another commonly used passage which people believe is a teaching on hell is actually a parable (one in a series of 5 such parables) which is almost universally incorrectly literally interpreted. This leads some to claim that those in SHEOL are already being tormented while others are in bliss in Abraham's bosom EVEN THOUGH it was prior to the resurrection and judgment at the end of the age? But if taken literally it raises more than a few other complications.... i.e. are we to assume that those in hell can see and talk to those in Abraham's bosom? Are rich people sent to hell because they lived a lavish life on earth and poor people rewarded with heaven. Under the New Covenant are we not saved BY GRACE through FAITH?

Luke 16:19   "There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and fared sumptuously every day.  20 But there was a certain beggar named Lazarus , full of sores, who was laid at his gate,  21 desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table. Moreover the dogs came and licked his sores.  22 So it was that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died and was buried.  23 And being in torments in Hades, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus  in his bosom.  
24 "Then he cried and said, 'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus  that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.'  25 But Abraham said, 'Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, and likewise Lazarus  evil things; but now he is comforted and you are tormented.  26 And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, so that those who want to pass from here to you cannot, nor can those from there pass to us.'  
27 "Then he said, 'I beg you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father's house,  28 for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them, lest they also come to this place of torment.'  29 Abraham said to him,'They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.'  30 And he said, 'No, father Abraham; but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.'  31 But he said to him, 'If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rise from the dead.'"  NKJV  
Please note that the context of this parable is set in vs 14 where the Pharisees deride Jesus for his teaching on money. In vs 15 Jesus blasts them for their fakeness and their evil ways. They knew these parables were being spoken AGAINST THEM (Luke 20:19). Read the scriptures and see how much God hates religious hypocrisy amongst leadership...especially when it is used to oppress His children (Mat 23:1-36)
This parable refers specifically to the ruling priestly Jews of the Sanhedrin at Jesus time (Judah and his 5 brothers) under the Law of Moses and who refused to hear Moses and rejected Jesus  (Deut 18:17-19, Acts 3:21-26) and who had previously rejected and killed the prophets and who were then certainly judged in AD70. They still did not believe EVEN AFTER JESUS RESURRECTION.  
Peter also puts hell into the context of the JUDGMENT which was about to begin on the house of God (ie Israel)...(1 Pet 4:17) ...not an event 2000 years away. 
1 Peter 4:17 For the time has come for judgment to begin at the house of God  NKJV
and Peter tells that this judgment will apply to all Israelites who sinned under the Law..
2 Peter 2:4 For if God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to hell and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved for judgment; 5 and did not spare the ancient world, ...........
9 then the Lord knows how to deliver the godly out of temptations and to reserve the unjust under punishment for the day of judgment NKJV
God judged the ancient world which was satanically corrupted by destruction through the flood. The angels who were spirits were reserved in chains for the judgment in Revelations 20:10 of being 'cast into the lake of fire and brimstone'. The word Peter uses is the Greek work 'tartaros'...the place of the damned. This is required because angels are spirits...who do not die and will therefore be 'eternally restrained and tormented'.
Daniel 12:1-3 speaks of a time of great trouble which would precede the resurrection and the judgment OF ISRAELITES who were reserved or waiting in sheol for this. History records that God judged Israel in AD 70 as Peter had written three to five years previously. This was prophecied to last three and a half years (vs 7) and was historically recorded as the actual duration of the seige and destruction of Jerusalem where large 'hail' stones of white marble one talent in weight and fire literally played their part in the 'THE day of judgment' for Israel.
So now when we look at 'hell' in the context of the NEW Covenant which now applies
The judgments pronounced on those UNDER the Law (which ended in AD 70 with the destruction of the temple) do not apply to those who are NOT under the Law. (Rom 3:19)
Rom 4:15 ... because the law brings about wrath ; for where there is no law there is no transgression.   NKJV
Rom 5:13 For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law. NKJV
Some conclude that non-believers today will also be judged in the same way as those under the Old covenant...based on the following scripture.
2 Thess 1: 6 since it is a righteous thing with God to repay with tribulation those who trouble you, 7 and to give you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, 8 in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power, 10 when He comes, in that Day, to be glorified in His saints and to be admired among all those who believe, because our testimony among you was believed. NKJV
Ask yourself this question..."Did God give the persecuted Thessalonians rest as Paul had promised...or are they still waiting for Jesus to come?"
The wrath in this passage however is directed at the non-believing Jews in approx AD 55 who were getting the Romans to persecute the early churches. Jesus described them as being part of the 'synagogue of Satan' (Rev 3:9) These were judged when Jesus returned as He promised (Mat 24:27-34) in AD 70 and where He was revealed to be God (Rev 1:7-8). Jesus had told them "if you do not believe that I am HE you will die in your sins" ... and they did!
Why would Gentile non-believers, who had never had a covenant with God which they broke and who did not reject and kill their promised Messiah, then be judged according to the LAW which they were not under and be punished according to that Law? Would they not just simply 'die and perish and cease to exist' .... just like dust as the scripture says of those who lived BEFORE the Law and had not sought for and found God? 
Gen 3:19    In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread 
Till you return to the ground,
For out of it you were taken;
For dust you are,
And to dust you shall return."     NKJV
(Please note that God did not say to man that only his physical 'body' would return to dust ....but YOU...i.e. man himself in his entirety would come to an end. Those who argue that only man's body died and that his 'immortal soul' lived on need to address the fact that the life of man is the spirit of God breathed into him according to Genesis 2:7. This breath or spirit (ruach) returned to God at death. The scriptures do not allow for the soul of un-regenerated man to continue to exist beyond the life of his MORTAL body. i.e. they DO NOT ascribe to man's soul a separate immortal status UNLESS HE OR SHE HAS been re-generated and FOUND ETERNAL LIFE IN GOD) 
Eccl 12:6    Remember your Creator before the silver cord is loosed
Or the golden bowl is broken,
Or the pitcher shattered at the fountain,
Or the wheel broken at the well. 
Then the dust will return to the earth as it was,
And the spirit will return to God who gave it. NKJV
It is scripturally far more accurate to conclude that the scriptures teach that God's wrathful judgment WAS TO BE on the very Jews who as His chosen people then rejected and killed their long promised Messiah. This judgment is described in the White Throne Judgment of Revelations (20 vs 11-15) and it occurred in AD 70 as history itself records for our confirmation.
The work that determines for us today whether one is saved or not is .... "What did you do with Jesus?... Did you accept Him or REJECT Him?" (This alone determines whether we have our names in the Lamb's Book of Life).
Jesus states emphatically that THIS generation who rejected Him would be judged rather than that the judgment was something which would be poured out on 'innocent' future generations at some undisclosed time over the next 2000 years or more later? (which would be contrary to Ezekiel 18).
So what about the 'Lake of Fire' in Revelations?... some will ask
Revelations addresses the judgment of Israel for rejecting her Messiah as Jesus specifically promised (Mat 23:33-38). We are told emphatically that the whole book was about events that were SOON to take place...things that were COMING QUICKLY ...and would happed SHORTLY (Rev 1 and Rev 22)
The key is that almost the WHOLE BOOK is steeped in apocalptic and prophetic language. To take a 'Lake of Fire' literally is to misunderstand the whole book.
The great city (spiritually known as Sodom and Egypt ...and also Babylon) which is where our Lord himself was crucified (Rev 11:8) WAS Jerusalem.
This city WAS destroyed and burnt to the foundations in AD 70 ... and fire was the means and 1.1 million Jews died being those who rejected Jesus. EVERY christian fled the city when they remembered what Jesus said (Mat 24:15-16) (Luke 21:20-22) proving that the early church KNEW that these chapters and the Book of Revelations referred to AD70.
The church is first referred to in Rev 1-3 where the seven churches are told the challenges they must overcome to avoid being caught up with the judgement of Israel. Remember that most of the early churches had Jewish and Gentile believers who formed their congregations. It is not till Rev 21 that the overcoming church is referred to again. From chapter 4 of Revelations to the beginning of chapter 21 the book deals with God's judgment on harlotrous Israel and the devil.
The NEW Jerusalem (Rev 21:2) coming down from heaven IS the NEW Covenant which applies to the church...(Gal 4:24-26) ... it is NOT a new physical city again located in Jerusalem (which sadly today has a reputation for being one of the most godless cities in the world and a global centre for homosexuality. Combine this with their continued refusal to acknowlege that they rejected their Messiah)
It is only when we come Revelations 21 ...to the NEW Jerusalem that we get some insights into what the New Covenant situation is. The great truth is that God now dwells with His people not in a temple in Jerusalem. The fact that death has lost it's sting and that there is no more sadness because we as believers will never be separated from Christ. The BRIDE of the Lamb in vs 9 is the NEW COVENANT CHURCH (Eph 5:25-32)
Brethren, the second death of Revelations 21:8 refers to the death of unbelievers and those who have not been transformed by being 'born again of the spirit'.  The first death for unsaved is spiritual death which is separation from God (Rom 5:12). The second death is the remaining great sadness. It is the death of the unsaved person who had no interest in knowing God and no end other than destruction. The lake of fire, in symbolic and prophetic imagery, is the place where those who have perished BECAUSE OF THEIR OWN CHOICES are disposed of.
Points to ponder
God did not tell anyone in the bible from Adam till when the Law was given through Moses, that they would be judged and burned in Hell for any sin they might commit. They were only told that sin would result in death. 
This is plainly illustrated in the situation where Cain killed Abel. He was only told that the soil would not produce for him and that he would be a fugitive and a vagabond for the rest of his life. God even protected him from being killed for this crime. He was certainly not told that he would be raised and judged and burned in Hell and be tormented forever because he had sinned.
Hebrew rabbin have throughout history concluded that all Gentiles had to do to be righteous was to believe in the one true God and obey seven major rules (B'nei Noach)...such as not being immoral, not killing, being generally law abiding, not eating meat with blood or things sacrificed to idols (refer also Acts 15:23-29)
It was the Law that brought wrath... Christ bore the wrath of God for the sin of the whole world on the cross. (1 John 2:2)
Now that the Law has been abolished all that remains is one sin....
John 16:8 And when He (the Helper) has come, He will convict the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:  9 of sin, because they do not believe in Me;  10 of righteousness, because I go to My Father and you see Me no more;  11 of judgment, because the ruler of this world is judged. NKJV
Believe in Jesus and receive the forgiveness Jesus died for you to have along with the Holy Spirit and eternal life... or remain DEAD
The only consequence remaining in the scriptures for people today (apart from the Law which has now been abolished) for the sin of disobeying God's appeal that people would "come to Me" ... is that they PERISH.
John 6:29 Jesus answered and said to them, "This is the work of God, that you believe in Him whom He sent."  NKJV
2 Peter 3:9 The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance. NKJV
Simply viewed, the dilemma of Adam and Eve was that they allowed themselves to be convinced (by the devil) that God's instruction not to eat of the 'tree of the knowledge of good and evil' was given because He was a despot enforcing rules for His own pleasure and self interest. They did not in faith believe that He told them of a DANGER to be avoided because He loved them and it would be detrimental for them. This was despite the fact that God had only ever demonstrated LOVE and care for them.... through his creation and provision of all their needs.... and His own personal loving interaction.
What is your view of God?... this is likely to determine your response to Him. 
If you feel you have been 'hard done by' and blame God or have just ignored Him ... then REPENT ... change your way thinking about God and respond to His LOVE. If you think there is not enough evidence for the existence of God ...wake up and smell the roses.
The God who made mankind and the whole universe is reaching out His hands to you. Through Jesus He says 'it does not matter if you have failed, I LOVE YOU'
John 3:16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.  17 For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. NKJV
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